Since the discovery and confirmation of the human urobiome, highly influential studies to characterize this microbial community and understand how it relates to human health and disease have been undertaken. Technological advances will improve information about the status of the urobiome for clinicians.
Lactobacillus predominance does not differ between adult women with mixed urinary incontinence and age-matched asymptomatic women, but some members of the genus Lactobacillus might be associated with urinary symptoms (5).
Preoperative assessment of the urinary microbiome could reduce bothersome urinary symptoms following surgery and reduce risk of perioperative urinary tract infection (6).
Public databases are inadequate for studies of the urobiome and its relationship to bladder health and disease because these databases lack urobiome-specific genomes (7).
Men with more severe urinary symptoms are more likely to have detectable bladder bacteria than those with less severe or no symptoms. Voided urine does not adequately characterize the male bladder urobiome, and catheterized urine should be used instead (8).
The urobiome differs between individuals with bladder cancer and those without (10).
"THE IMPACT OF MICROBIOME IN UROLOGICAL DESEASES
The term microbiome is used to signify the ecological community of commensal, symbiotic, and pathogenic microorganisms that share our body space, in which there were increasing evidences to suggest that they might have potential roles in various medical conditions. While the study of microbiome in the urinary system is not as robust as the systems included in the Human Microbiome Project, there are still evidences in the literature showing that microbiome may have a role in urological diseases. Therefore, we would like to perform a systematic review on the topic and summarize the available evidence on the impact of microbiome on urological diseases.
This review was performed according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-analysis (PRISMA) statement. After screening 589 abstracts and including additional studies (such as references from review papers), 76 studies were included for review and discussion.
Studies had suggested that there were correlations of microbiome of different body cavities (e.g., fecal, urinary and seminal fluid) with urological diseases. Also, different diseases would have different microbiome profile in different body cavities. Unfortunately, the studies on the association of microbiome and urological diseases were still either weak or inconsistent.
Studies suggested that there might be some relationship between microbiome and various urological diseases. However, further large-scale studies with control of confounding factors should be performed under a standardized methodology in order to have better understanding of the relationship. Also, more standardized reporting protocol for microbiome studies should be considered for better communications in future studies.
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